Next WTO Director-General down to two ‘developing’ nation candidates:
— Mr Herminio Blanco (Mexico)
— Mr Roberto Carvalho de Azevêdo (Brazil)
Posts tagged WTO
From WTO News:
Brasil, on 28 December 2012, nominated Mr Roberto Carvalho de Azevêdo for the post of WTO Director-General to succeed the current Director-General, Mr Pascal Lamy, whose term of office expires on 31 August 2013.
This could be a very strong developing nation candidate. The Brazilians have a history of leadership in the WTO but have yet (like many) to hold the executive office.
The nomination process is now closed.
A candidate round up is upon us…
From WTO News:
The Republic of Korea, on 28 December 2012, nominated Minister Taeho Bark for the post of WTO Director-General to succeed the current Director-General, Mr Pascal Lamy, whose term of office expires on 31 August 2013.
This is my pick (thus far) for the fifth Director-General of the WTO.
Will still be doing a big bio series compilation when the nomination process closes in 3 days.
From WTO News:
Indonesia, on 19 December 2012, nominated Minister Mari Pangestu for the post of WTO Director-General to succeed the current Director-General, Mr Pascal Lamy, whose term of office expires on 31 August 2013.
From WTO News yesterday:
Kenya, on 21 December 2012, nominated Ms Amina Mohamed for the post of WTO Director-General to succeed the current Director-General, Mr Pascal Lamy, whose term of office expires on 31 August 2013.
Once the nomination process is finished, I’ll do a post with background info and further analysis.
In a previous post on the nomination process, it was said that Jordan would likely put a candidate forward, and they have. Jordan has made a nomination for the next Director-General of the WTO. From WTO News yesterday:
Jordan, on 21 December 2012, nominated Mr Ahmad Hindawi for the post of WTO Director-General to succeed the current Director-General, Mr Pascal Lamy, whose term of office expires on 31 August 2013.
My argument still stands. I don’t think we’ve seen the nomination of the 5th Director-General of the WTO.
How about some organisational political economy for brekkies?
(from WTO News, 19 December 2012)
Costa Rica, on 19 December 2012, nominated Minister Anabel González for the post of WTO Director-General to succeed the current Director-General, Mr Pascal Lamy, whose term of office expires on 31 August 2013.
Additionally, from ICTSD, Bridges Weekly, Vol 16, No 44
Additional nominations are expected by the end of the one-month nominating period, which closes on 31 December. … Recent media reports have also indicated that the nomination of Ahmad Thougan Al Hindawi, Jordan’s former Trade and Industry Minister, is likely to be formally announced in the coming days.
Other expected candidates include Tim Groser, New Zealand’s trade minister, who has already expressed interest in the post. Rumors around delegations in Geneva have also raised the possibility of other African and/or Latin American candidates, including a likely nomination from Brazil, among others.
ICTSD’s analysis on WTO candidate selection process is excellent, as always. They note that unlike the World Bank/IMF ‘gentleman’s agreement’ (one European head and one US head), the next WTO Director-General could be from a developing nation. Certainly, at this time, all we’re looking at is developing nation candidates. However, it’s still early. Supachai Panitchpakdi has been the only developing nation Director-General in the WTO (Thailand).
My preliminary findings suggest because institutions are heavily influenced by their structure (composed by the Americans on a British/European design), Directors-General who do not use the institution ‘as designed’ (re: seek to balance the structural developed nation bias) are usually not AS effective in their leadership. Looking at the WTO today (w/Doha at impasse, and the organisation only ‘half functioning’ - DSM), members might be better served electing a developed nation candidate. One who can get USTR back into the Doha Round, since the demise of the Lamy-Zoellick relationship.
(from WTO News)
17 December 2012
DIRECTOR-GENERAL SELECTION PROCESS
Ghana nominates Mr Alan John Kwadwo Kyerematen for post of WTO Director-General
Ghana, on 17 December 2012, nominated Mr Alan John Kwadwo Kyerematen for the post of WTO Director-General to succeed the current Director-General, Mr Pascal Lamy, whose term of office expires on 31 August 2013.
Lamy is the last DG in my doctoral case study. I am ALL over this nomination process.
On August 16, 2012, gunmen stopped a passenger bus in Mansehra, pulled 20 Shia Muslims off and killed them in cold blood. This is the third incident of targeted killing against the Shia community in Pakistan in the last 6 months.
Source cites 18 killed on 23 February and 9 killed on 3 April, additionally. Another source (via social media) cites four total incidents of targeted Shia killings.
@sheerazhaider: #ShiaKilling This is 4th time in 4 months,1st one kosistan,2nd chelas,3rd manwar gilgit,and last babusar naraan today.CJP Are You Awake?
Two other sources (via social media) call out the labeling of the targeted killing (as Shia or Sunni).
@AnjumKiani: if u want to call it a #ShiaGenocide then call It, If u want to term it as a #SunniGenocide Do it. For me its a #MuslimGenocide. #Gilgit
One of which accuses Khawarji (also as spelled Khawariji) Muslims of the killings. The best my research can determine, the Kharijites differ from Sunni and Shia Muslims in their former belief in the leadership of ‘final Rashidun Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib, the son-in-law and cousin of the Islamic prophet Muhammad’. The wiki says something about condemning other Muslims to death for differing beliefs, but the wiki cannot be verified.
@javhb: RT @AnjumKiani: The 16 martyred in #Gilgit by Khawarji terrorist were neither 16 Sunni’s or 16 Shia’s, They were Pakistani Muslims. Full Stop!
Two things occur to me:
I’d like to use this terrible event to propose (and possibly reinforce) a multi-agency perspective to global awareness and action. I mean agency in the historical institutionalist sense, as possessing the capacity to affect action.
(1) Syria, Rwanda, the DRC, Chechnya, etc, demonstrate that international organizations like the United Nations fail to manage and prevent such conflict; I argue this is likely because of (domestic) political reasons, rather than international structural design, but this is a separate discussion. (2) Amnesty International, Medicines Sans Frontiers, various NGOs have had more success at managing on the ground conflict; but they are often victims of conflict themselves and receive little protection from ‘global governance’ institutions. (3) Finally, social media (Facebook, Twitter, Avaaz, blogs) provide on the ground, verifiable information and necessary clarification about on-going conflict; they engage global communities and provide mechanisms for action and support but are also unsupported by global institutions.
What I am trying to convey is that we (as global scholars and activists) have been just as divided about international governance and the prevention (and subsequent intervention) of genocide. If we keep approaching governance, peace-keeping, global activism in these differing camps (1-3 above), we do little to quiet the rumors that international awareness and activism have been ineffectual for decades and will continue to be. …I’m drawing an analogy.
When I was interviewing at the WTO, an interviewee suggested that the WTO perspective of global governance has the UN at the top of the triangle, the WTO to one side, and the World Bank and the IMF to the other side (peace-keeping, trade, and banking/development - the three pillars of global governance).
I propose another triangle of global governance. With global institutions like the UN at the top, NGOs to one side, and global citizens (via social networking) to the other (institutions, NGOs, and citizens - the three pillars of global governance all in advocacy for peace-keeping and development). This conceptualization isn’t ‘new’ or ‘novel’, but it’s another example of how academia and activism unite to inform institutional and private-sector responses to international conflict and crises.
Something there’s been much too little of in this century.
The International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) - the people who ran the (WTO) MC8 Parallel Symposium on trade and development I attended in Geneva in December - has produced a new ebook, The Future and the WTO: Confronting the Challenges, A Collection of Short Essays, with some BIG, BIG names contributing:
And this is just a sampling of the people I know! There are 30 contributions in this epic ebook that address the scope and difficulties in governing international trade. When I began my long labour of love to becoming a WTO scholar, I wish I had known things like this were out there. If you’re interested in more information on the 30 essays (topic, contributor, etc), send a message, and I’ll pass along the good word. THIS IS A NOT-TO-BE-MISSED FOR TRADE AND POLITICAL ECONOMY SCHOLARS!
Hey… Bank Information Center. This is (partly) for you.
The selection processes for heads of international organizations are historically contentious and often precipitate short-lived discussion about the nature of executive office. Recently in 2011, Dominique Strauss-Kahn’s resignation from the International Monetary Fund caused an international media sensation. The selection of Christine Lagarde – the first female to head the Fund – facilitated a global dialogue about perceptions of masculine leadership in international organization fueled by Stauss-Kahn’s on-going legal investigation. A year later in 2012, Robert Zoellick announced his resignation as head of the World Bank. The pool of candidates reflected an unprecedented consideration of “developing nation” candidates for a position historically held by the United States (US). Though the US candidate, Dr. Jim Yong Kim, was selected for the position, the opportunity gave cause to question the necessary qualifications of the head an international organization. In 2013, Pascal Lamy will end his term as head of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The selection of a successor will generate international (momentary) debate. It appears that heads of international organizations matter significantly. Otherwise, why would their selection rouse such a global – albeit temporary – debate? Once in office, the spectacle fades, debates about historic opportunities are disregarded, and the emphasis placed on effective executive leadership recedes – until the prospect of reappointment arises.
I think also when I come to D.C. this year, I’d like to interview your people about executive leadership in the Bank - if you’ll have me.
Usually these posts of my academic writing are reserved for me ves-a-me, ves-a-me moments. This one is in praise of creating (and possibly fostering) academic relationships via tumblr and for daps… Daps, Bank Information Center, daps.
From the WTO News:
TRADE GROWTH TO SLOW IN 2012 AFTER STRONG DECELERATION IN 2011
World trade expanded in 2011 by 5.0%, a sharp deceleration from the 2010 rebound of 13.8%, and growth will slow further still to 3.7% in 2012, WTO economists project. They attributed the slowdown to the global economy losing momentum due to a number of shocks, including the European sovereign debt crisis.
Husband and I had a chat the other night (because he lives here now, and we can do that sort of thing) that the global elite really has nothing to gain from improving the global economy. Those that are in control (speculation, investment, day trading, ‘market bets’ - supply/demand no longer accurate determinants of economic behaviour) of the economy are making money regardless whether ‘the people’ are keeping their heads above water; some corporations and top elites have even done better during ‘the recession’. So without a slew of links, here’s my HT to Roubini - things aren’t going to get better for ‘the people’ (for a while).
When growth from trade slows, developing nations suffer the most (see Schellberg (2009) ‘Doha Recovery Critical for Global Economic Recovery), unable to ‘clear the development hurdle’. This will be a big setback for the UN Millennium Development Goals and, of course, billions of people globally. Expect developed nation ‘standard of living’ to return to the 1980s - prone to spikes of inflation and (more-so) closed markets - with the slight but notable return of manufacturing and improved relations with proximal trading partners.
(analysis limited to political economy of international trade; could be developed significantly using a (neo)realist frame: ‘resource wars’)
Were you aware that in June 2009 clove cigarettes became illegal in the United States?
No? …me either. My husband loves cloves, and a few minutes ago the WTO panel report on a Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU) case, DS406, US - clove cigarettes, between the United States and Indonesia hit my inbox. It was too interesting to not post.
In 2009, US H.R. 1256 (powered by the FDA) prohibited ‘flavoured’ cigarettes, and this apparently (according to USTR) includes clove cigarettes but does NOT include menthol cigarettes. The FDA objected that ‘flavoured’ cigarettes target children or young smokers and contribute to all around poor national health.
Indonesia brought the case to the WTO DSU in April 2010. Here is a breakdown of the case and findings:
‘As regards Indonesia’s other claims under the TBT Agreement, the Panel found that the United States acted inconsistently with Article 2.9.2 (obligation to notify WTO Members of technical regulations) and Article 2.12 (obligation to allow reasonable interval between publication and entry into force of technical regulations). However, the Panel found that Indonesia failed to demonstrate that the United States acted inconsistently with Article 2.5 (obligation to provide an explanation of draft technical regulation), Article 2.8 (obligation to specify a technical regulation in terms of performance), Article 2.9.3 (obligation to provide particulars or copies of the proposed technical regulation) or Article 12.3 (obligation to take account of the special development, financial and trade needs of a developing country Member), and declined to rule on Indonesia’s claim under Article 2.10 (obligation to notify in cases of urgency).’
So as always, some wins and loses for developing nations’ cases against the US.
So what’s next for clove cigarettes in the US? Thoughts?
Indonesia will close a hub port in Jakarta to imports of fresh fruits and vegetables on 19 June 2012, postponed from original date of 19 March, causing concern among some of the world’s major agricultural exporters - the US, the EU, Australia, Chile, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa.
From the WTO news brief:
[The US-led coalition] said the vast majority of horticultural imports (90%, according to the US and New Zealand), enter through Jakarta, and that the use of alternative ports will add several days of transportation, increasing costs and affecting the shelf life of perishable produce.
Indonesia cited food safety and plant health reasons but did not notify any phytosanitary issues involving American fruit and vegetable exports, the US said. Nor has any scientific justification been produced, it said.
Canada, which does not export much fruit and vegetables to Indonesia, said that it is concerned that the measure could be extended to meat and other animal products.
Indonesia said the closure is needed because the ports to be closed do not have enough laboratory and quarantine facilities to deal with threats found in imported products. Four seaports and one airport will stay open for these imports, and the postponement to 19 June is designed to give trade partners enough time to set up new infrastructure such as warehouses, it said.
Agricultural products are THE most highly contested in global trade. With no conclusion to Doha (and resulting multilateral trade agreement) and the global marketplace continuing to shrink for developing nations, this (protectionist) shift is not uncommon or difficult to understand. Canada is expressing just concerns and in my opinion, is approaching a VERY hot button issue in a very appropriate way. …As opposed to USTR Ron Kirk’s approach.
Hooray Canada? …also boo Indonesia? If only it were that simple…this is agricultural power politics at its best!